Superconductivity

The scientists, engineers and businessmen attention have been attracted to the wonderful phenomenon of superconductivity and its possible applications. By taking a brief look at the properties of superconductors you will know the history of it in the unit.

There are two different kind of superconductors existed today and you will learn about modelling the properties of superconductors.

  1. Superconductors:

In 1911 it been discovered the superconductivity by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes besides his studies of the metal properties at low temperatures. An experimental investigation had opened up in a new range of temperature which led to Mr. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes the first person who liquefied helium after few years of the discovery of superconductivity. He shocked to observe the resistance fell from ~0.1 Ω at a temperature of 4.3 K to less than 3 × 10−6 Ω at 4.1 K while measuring a small tube filled with mercury resistance. It been reproduced as a result. There hasn’t any experiment yet detected the resistance to steady current flow in superconductivity material, below 4.1 K, mercury is said to be a superconductor. Critical temperature is known as the mercury becomes superconducting although the temperature becomes below. In 1913 because of the investigation it led to the production of liquid helium which because of it Kamerlingh Onnes was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics.

  1. Properties of superconductors:
  1. Zero electrical resistance:

The critical temperature known as the complete disappearance of its electrical resistance below a temperature of the most obvious characteristic of a superconductor. In the superconducting state experiments have been carried out to attempt to detect whether there is any small residual resistance.

  1. Persistent currents lead to constant magnetic flux:

The magnetic flux that passes through a continuous loop of such a material remains constant which is a significant consequence of the persistent currents that flow in materials with zero resistance. Enclosing a fixed area A after considering a ring of metal. The ring is made of the critical temperature of the material and it’s an initial magnetic which is applied vertical to the surface of the ring when the temperature is above. According to Lenz’s law for the flux change due to the change in the applied field but if we change the field the it will be induced in the ring and the direction of this current generates compensates for the magnetic flux.

From Faraday’s law, the induced emf in the ring is −dΦ/dt = −Ad(B − B0)/dt, and this generates an induced current I given by

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